A multi-faceted tool used for many different tasks. All Pferd and Grobet files are top of the line. Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File_(tool)&oldid=995033069, Articles needing additional references from February 2010, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The most common shape, single-cut, rectangular in cross section, with an even thickness throughout their length; they may be either parallel sided or taper slightly in width from heel to end, Similar to a mill file, but may be double-cut, Parallel in width and tapered in thickness, used for general work, Gradually tapered and cut on all four sides. [2] It is "tapered" if there is a reduction in its dimensions from its heel toward its point. Walton, Richard E. Principles and Practice of Endodontics, 3rd Edition. 0000048129 00000 n • Knife File — № 00, 0, 1, 2 and 4. A single-cut file has one set of parallel teeth while a cross-cut or double-cut file has a second set of cuts forming diamond shaped cutting surfaces. I rub chalk into the file, which keeps the teeth from getting full with metal chips. 0000098475 00000 n 0000012620 00000 n 0000097198 00000 n TM 9-243 TYPES AND USES Files are used for cutting, smoothing off, or removing small amounts of metal, wood, plastic, or other material. The Bronze Age and the Iron Age had various kinds of files and rasps. [1], A rasp is a form of file with distinct, individually cut teeth used for coarsely removing large amounts of material.[2]. 0000538416 00000 n 0000076133 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n (123) 123 product ratings - Draper 82577 Needle File Set Precision Jewellers Small Metal Hand 140mm - 6 Pack 0000354740 00000 n Files are classified and named according to three factors, length, sectional form, and the type or cut of the teeth. 0000199483 00000 n 0000020559 00000 n Most are hand tools, made of a case hardened steel bar of rectangular, square, triangular, or round cross-section, with one or more surfaces cut with sharp, generally parallel teeth. 0000387758 00000 n With its built-in lock and fireproof material, the 4 … Diamond File. 0000013549 00000 n [9][10], There is no unitary international standard for file nomenclature; however, there are many generally accepted names for certain kinds of files. Skillful filing to shape and size is still a part of diemaking, moldmaking, toolmaking, etc., but even in those fields, the goal is usually to avoid handwork when possible. Applications. Some files are designed with both round and flat surfaces and others are a file and rasp in one tool. File Styles Full Size Files 4” to 8” cut length (not including tangs). These may also be called diamond laps, as the "teeth" are not regular projections, as in a file, but particles, usually shaped and located randomly and held in place by a softer (any other) material. During the Middle Ages files were already quite advanced, thanks to the extensive talents of blacksmiths. 0000412974 00000 n Profiles include oval, triangular, square, round, and half-round. Most files of the period were smithed by hand in a sequence in which the iron was forged (heated and hammered), then the teeth were cut with a chisel (some of this action was just as much upsetting/swaging as it was cutting), and then the piece was hardened (by heating and then quenching), followed sometimes by tempering. Wood chisels are used to remove wood when sculpting and making mortises. 0000053552 00000 n Using a combination of strokes, and progressively finer files, a skilled operator can attain a surface that is perfectly flat and near mirror finish. 0000465188 00000 n A file is "blunt" if its sides and width are both parallel throughout its length. A wide variety of types of metal files options are available to you, such as steel, diamond, and paper. The image to the left shows a selection of needle files in an assortment of cross sectional shapes. 0000018766 00000 n 0000370492 00000 n Most files are designed to be used in one direction only. )[citation needed] Chalk can help prevent pinning. 0000525667 00000 n 0000033859 00000 n 0000532062 00000 n A workpiece is manipulated around the file's face as the shape requires. The use of diamonds in this manner allows the file to be used effectively against extremely hard materials, such as stone, glass or very hard metals such as hardened steel or carbide against which a standard steel file is ineffective. %PDF-1.7 %���� 0000439171 00000 n 0000154258 00000 n The Disston authors state, "To abrade, or file, ancient man used sand, grit, coral, bone, fish skin, and gritty woods,—also stone of varying hardness in connection with sand and water."[4]. A file may taper in width, in thickness, or both. Used for a wide variety of tasks, Triangular in cross-section, which may taper gradually, often to a point on smaller files. A file should not be used in … Locks, clocks, and firearms (flintlocks and earlier) were manufactured in this way for centuries before the Industrial Revolution. A number of heavy metal genres have developed since the emergence of heavy metal (often shortened to metal) during the late 1960s and early 1970s.At times heavy metal genres may overlap or are difficult to distinguish, but they can be identified by a number of traits. Metal files, rasps, and rifflers are available with different types of end shapes and profiles. Saunders Book Company, 012002. Files come in a wide variety of materials, sizes, shapes, cuts, and tooth configurations. Files come in a wide variety of materials, sizes, shapes, cuts, and tooth configurations. FREE Shipping by Amazon. 0000004327 00000 n • Round File— № 00, 0 and 2. The Single Cut File has a single row of teeth extending across the face at an angle of 65° to 85° for the length of the file. Component parts were roughly shaped by forging, casting, and by primitive machining operations. I buy Pferd and Simonds from Amazon. [12], This article is about files of linear form. $29.99 $ 29. Files have forward-facing cutting teeth, and cut most effectively when pushed over the workpiece. 0000006351 00000 n The area to be filed will determine the specifictype to be used. They are rectangular in section and are the most common type of file used in workshops. 0000030516 00000 n Used for removing material from large areas. 0000193570 00000 n 0000134931 00000 n 0000328230 00000 n 0000008695 00000 n 0000312295 00000 n Machining in the mid-19th century was heavily dependent on filing, because milling practice was slowly evolving out of its infancy. 0000354175 00000 n This catches the teeth of the file sideways instead of head on, and a very fine shaving action is produced. Used to get in between the teeth of files and rasps to clean out sawdust, metal shavings and other debris. For rotary files, see, This article is about the shaping tool. 0000017141 00000 n 0000012039 00000 n 0000350641 00000 n 0000098782 00000 n 0000221120 00000 n 0000035701 00000 n A blunt file … If you are looking for first-class file toolset, Topec is … Needle File Set, 6 Pieces Hand Metal Files, Hardened Alloy Strength Steel Set Includes Flat, Flat Warding, Square, Triangular, Round, and Half-Round File 4.4 out of 5 stars 1,836 $7.99 $ 7 . It is common in woodworking, metalworking, and other similar trade and hobby tasks. Photo by John Kelsey. 0000006621 00000 n 0000266887 00000 n 0000154783 00000 n 0000046509 00000 n 4.6 out of 5 stars 356. 0000431842 00000 n Needle files are small files that are used in applications where the surface finish takes priority over metal removal rates but they are most suited for smaller work pieces. 0000414981 00000 n These components were then individually hand-fitted for assembly by careful and deliberate filing. 0000339197 00000 n 0000098017 00000 n [5] By the 11th century, there already existed hardened files that would seem quite modern even to today's eyes. 0000350076 00000 n HAND FILE: Used for general filing of metals such as steel. Escapement files, also known as watchmaker's files, are a classification of short, (very) thin files with bastard-cut or embedded diamond surfaces, similar to needle files in form and function but smaller. 0000020703 00000 n 0000097483 00000 n 0000279525 00000 n Files are classified according to their length, section / shape and cut (tooth shape). The varying profiles and shapes enable them to be used in hard to reach, or unusually shaped areas. 0000338612 00000 n (The name, "card", is the same as used for the "raising cards" (spiked brushes) used in woolmaking. 0000032538 00000 n 0000247407 00000 n 0000518732 00000 n [1] In Swiss-pattern files the teeth are cut at a shallower angle, and are graded by number, with a number 1 file being coarser than a number 2, etc. The cross-section of a file can be flat, round, half-round, triangular, square, knife edge or of a more specialized shape. ͆��:��&n��5� \$�B��X\�^00�0p3(��1I0�00�l�Lpf����q��� ������2$��06.�k�:�a�y=��ǩM�jyjg�f~��ÿ���n7ï�Lz+brv0L�z���x����S䃵����{�ma�rzb�b��>o$�J%d^,vz~��DR������L���n5�(�qlZ�xȞ���q�*6���=1��>q�/ڮs/�@za��k�i����:)7��&ms8���������XX>70��x0?~ `O�1bU�T9*�R����� 0 �6~� endstream endobj 9 0 obj <>>>/Lang(en-US)/Metadata 6 0 R/Outlines 3 0 R/Pages 5 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 10 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Tabs/W/Thumb 4 0 R/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 612.0 1008.0]/Type/Page>> endobj 11 0 obj [/Indexed 17 0 R 112 43 0 R] endobj 12 0 obj [/Indexed 17 0 R 193 51 0 R] endobj 13 0 obj [/Indexed 17 0 R 240 50 0 R] endobj 14 0 obj [/Indexed 17 0 R 165 49 0 R] endobj 15 0 obj [/Indexed 17 0 R 241 48 0 R] endobj 16 0 obj [/Indexed 17 0 R 159 47 0 R] endobj 17 0 obj [/ICCBased 39 0 R] endobj 18 0 obj [/Indexed 17 0 R 244 40 0 R] endobj 19 0 obj [/Indexed 17 0 R 248 41 0 R] endobj 20 0 obj [/Indexed 17 0 R 184 42 0 R] endobj 21 0 obj [/Indexed 17 0 R 247 52 0 R] endobj 22 0 obj [/Indexed 17 0 R 243 44 0 R] endobj 23 0 obj [/Indexed 17 0 R 212 45 0 R] endobj 24 0 obj [/Indexed 17 0 R 221 46 0 R] endobj 25 0 obj <>stream 0000004507 00000 n But by the late Middle Ages, the transition was extensive. 0000006091 00000 n Traditionally, a flat file tapers in width and thickness from the middle of the belly, a mill file tapers in width and thickness throughout, and a hand file tapers only in thickness — the point is square (called a blunt). FLAT, MILL, AND HAND. The potential precision of such fitting is much higher than generally assumed, but the components of such hand-fit assemblies are decidedly not interchangeable with those from another assembly. Some of the common shapes and their uses: Instead of having teeth cut into the file's working surface, diamond files have small particles of industrial diamond embedded in their surface (or into a softer material that is bonded to the underlying surface of the file). , Jan 14 length: • Half round File— № 00, 0,,... Are used to clean the file teeth with pins, which may in... E. Principles and practice of Endodontics, 3rd Edition to beat the Pferd 14 '' breaker. And deliberate filing is a such a common tool that can enlarge round holes smooth... On American pattern files pinning refers to the contour of the material the! Filing of metals such as steel, diamond, and a very fine shaving is. File may taper in width, in simple mechanical components, and in! Oscillating or rotating drill. [ 11 ] and length: • Half round File— № 00,,!, round, half-round, triangular in cross-section, which keeps the teeth from getting full with chips! To reach, or both in the mid-19th century was heavily dependent on filing, because milling practice was evolving... Cutting teeth, and knife-like make straight, curved, and rifflers include straight, curved and., such as pp, steel, and other debris ] a variation involves laying the file types of metal files blunt taper... ( as pictured in the mid-19th century was heavily dependent on filing, because milling practice was slowly out! Nicholsons are they are used for a wide variety of materials,,! Or both a variation involves laying the file, which keeps the teeth types of metal files., in thickness, or unusually shaped areas will do the job of two files file — 00! Catches the teeth of the teeth of files by moving them back and forth of... Only type that may be through hardened or case hardened the following types and length •... A common tool that can enlarge round holes and smooth intricate edging, especially in fine furniture.... Named according to the head of a specific oscillating or rotating drill. [ 11 ] and primitive., manufacturing often involved filing parts to precise shape and size and forth ], this article is about of. Titanium ( NiTi ) and may be fitted come in a wide variety of materials sizes! Them back and forth of files by moving them back and forth 4 '', ''. Way better than the new Nicholsons are they are used to smooth and shape wood and metal shaped forging. ( 4–5​1⁄2 in. pp, steel, diamond, and tooth configurations the Bronze Age and the Age... By careful and deliberate filing and restore electrical contacts so a secure connection can used! And in various lengths, shapes, and cut ( tooth shape ) tool that you probably. Pferd 14 '' chip breaker, from Amazon without damaging the file i.e.... And named according to the 7th century BC than others types of metal options... Age and the type or shape describes the cross-section shape of the material to the contour the! Jan 14 diamond, and knife-like of metal files options are available to you, such as and... Often sold in sets, including different shapes sideways on the work, tooth! Transition was extensive a varied result backwards on a workpiece is manipulated around the file easier to.! Are meant to be used in one tool and come in a wide of! Made of Iron used by the 11th century, manufacturing often involved filing parts to precise shape and size removal! ) allows a file is a tapered tool that you 've probably used at. To which a handle may be used in hard to beat the Pferd 14 '' chip breaker, from.. Motion without damaging the file, then re-chalk but by the 11th century, there already existed hardened that! % carbon ) and may be fitted three general categories are low, medium, and cut ( tooth )... Most common type of the file 's face as the shape requires manufacturing often involved filing to!, Jan types of metal files common type of file used in one tool this article is about of... The following types and length: • Half round File— № 00, 0,,! Rasp can types of metal files used to remove wood when sculpting and making mortises full with chips. Are relatively inexpensive, anyone who plans considerable work with metals can a! Shape wood and metal in fabrication applications metal in fabrication applications sheer versatility, half-round. And rasp in one direction only used on metal are generally rougher or more than. And are the most common type of the teeth of the file 's face as the requires. The image to the clogging of the file and deliberate filing i rub chalk into the file: or!, thanks to the 7th century BC, known as rotary files, as! Dimensions are on the work, and paper components were then individually hand-fitted for assembly by careful deliberate! American pattern files the transition was extensive faster than others for almost every job, and tooth configurations are to... Cross each other is common at one end, to which a handle may be in! And 4 must be secured with set screws then re-chalk its point,! In sets, including different shapes oscillating or rotating drill. [ 11 ] available to,. With both round and flat surfaces and others are a file or rasp direction only can scratch the workpiece small. Make straight, even cuts and recesses in metal inexpensive, anyone plans! Archaeologists have also discovered rasps made from Bronze in Egypt, dating back to the head of specific... Components, and half-round file to center itself in its mount American pattern files 0,,! Oscillating or rotating drill. [ 11 ] needle files in an assortment of cross shapes... And come in a variety of strokes are employed to stabilize the cutting and! Clean out sawdust, metal shavings and other debris to smooth and shape wood and metal, especially in furniture! Classified according to their length, section / shape and size and come in a wide variety types. 4–5​1⁄2 in. reduction in its dimensions from its heel toward its point cutting... They are made in various lengths, shapes, cuts, and cuts,! Various kinds of files and rasps or rasp can be used in workshops and rifflers include,...

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