noun (often used with a singular verb) (initial capital letter) a group of 14 books, not considered canonical, included in the Septuagint and the Vulgate as part of the Old Testament, but usually omitted from Protestant editions of the Bible. The New Testament Apocrypha, though less influential, has contributed to the traditions about Jesus and the travels and fate of the apostles, not to mention the development of the Christian concept of hell, most notably through the Inferno of Dante. Terms and definitions . The author praises and personifies (cf. Apocrypha is a relative term. The Apocrypha are religious texts that are in some versions of the Catholic Bible.Other versions omit them. The apocryphal Acts (Acts of Andrew, Acts of John, Acts of Paul, Acts of Peter, and Acts of Thomas) purport to trace the journeys of the apostles, with Thomas going all the way to India. Over time, "apocrypha" took on a more negative connotation, due to the questionable origins and doubtful canonicity of these books. The word Apocrypha comes from the Greek word, meaning “hidden” or “concealed”. The Old Testament Apocrypha, often referred to simply as "the Apocrypha, " is a collection of Jewish books that are included in the Old Testament canons of Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians, but not of Protestants. Article Images Copyright © 2021 Getty Images unless otherwise indicated. 2 Col 12:2 ). It testifies to a developing demonology and angelology within Judaism, and emphasizes the importance of charitable deeds, containing some striking parallels to the ethical teaching in the New Testament, including a negative form of the Golden Rule (cf. against the Greek tyrant Antiochus IV, who attempted to ban the practice of Judaism. The latter present, in contrast to the relatively reserved statements in the New Testament, vivid descriptions of hell, where sinners are punished in accordance with their sins: blasphemers, for example, hang by their tongues over a blazing fire. Salem Media Group. The Apocrypha are still regarded as part of the canon of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches, and as … Proud member What does apocrypha mean? The biblical apocrypha (from the Ancient Greek: ἀπόκρυφος, romanized: apókruphos, lit. The text is believed to be the work of seventy Jewish scholars that assembled in Alexandria, Egypt around 285 to 247 B.C. American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Another noteworthy (and secondary) prayer is the Prayer of Manasseh, apparently composed to give content to the prayer of repentance offered by Manasseh that is mentioned in 2 Chronicles 33:12-13. Yet it must be confessed that the early Fathers, and the Church , during the first three centuries, were more indulgent towards Jewish pseudographs circulating under venerable Old Testament names. A user from Maryland, U.S. says the name Apocrypha is of Greek origin and means "One who is exalted, hidden and secret". late 14c., Apocrifa, in reference to the apocryphal books of the Bible, from Late Latin apocrypha (scripta), from neuter plural of apocryphus "secret, not approved for public reading," from Greek apokryphos "hidden; obscure, hard to understand," thus "(books) of unknown authorship" (especially those included in the Septuagint and Vulgate but not originally written in Hebrew and not counted as genuine by the Jews), from apo "off, away" (see apo-) + kryptein "to hide" (see crypt). They don’t say “The word of the Lord came to me…” •Many of the Apocryphal books teach heresy, contrary to the Word of God. The Pseudepigrapha attest to the rich theological diversity within Judaism during the intertestamental period. Two books are associated with Jeremiah: the Letter of Jeremiah is an attack on idolatry, and Baruch, attributed to Jeremiah's secretary (cf. 2. 2. "Esoteric" in Greek Philosophy, etc. 5), the limitations of human understanding, the signs of the end, the final judgment, the intermediate state between death and the final judgment, the destruction of the Roman Empire, and the coming Messiah. We'll send you an email with steps on how to reset your password. Judaism holds all the books of the New Testament - as well as the deuterocanonicals and anything else found in the Greek … Christians tod… Two other Wisdom books are contained in the Apocrypha. For usage information, please read the Baker Book House Copyright Statement. III. Apocrypha "Apocrypha" comes from the Greek word apokrypha [ajpovkrufo"], which means "things that are hidden, secret. Matt 7:12 ). The word "apocrypha" means "things put away" or "things hidden," originating from the Medieval Latin adjective apocryphus, "secret" or "non-canonical," which in turn originated from the Greek adjective ἀπόκρυφος (apokryphos), "obscure," from the verb ἀποκρύπτειν (apokryptein), "to hide away. Many of them, such as the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Mary, and the Dialogue of the Savior, were composed by heretical groups like the Gnostics and purport to give "secret, " unorthodox teachings of Jesus. Apocrypha The Apocrypha (Greek, "hidden books") is a group of 13 Jewish texts written from about the 5th to 1st centuries BCE, between the times of the Old Testament and New Testament. The Eastern Church In addition, the Apocalypse of Paul purports to give a detailed narration of Paul's rapture to the third heaven (cf. Second Esdras centers around the theme of God's justice in the light of the devastating defeat of his people Israel by a godless nation. Four books are associated, in name at least, with the Maccabees, those Jewish heroes who, led by Judas Maccabeus, waged the Maccabean Revolt in the second century b.c. The stories, themes, and language of these books (especially Judith, Tobit, Susanna, the Maccabees, Ecclesiasticus, and the Wisdom of Solomon) have been utilized by literary figures such as Shakespeare, Milton, and Longfellow, composers such as Charles Wesley, Handel, and Rubinstein, and artists such as Michaelangelo, Rembrandt, and van Dyck. The Wisdom of Solomon, ostensibly related to Solomon, deliberates on the future reward of the righteous and punishment of the ungodly, sings the praises of Wisdom, and, through a retelling of the exodus story, celebrates God's exaltation of Israel through the very things by which her enemies were punished. These books (with the exception of 2 Esdras) were part of the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible known as the Septuagint; however, none of the books of the Apocrypha were in the original Hebrew canon. 1 Maccabees is famously written in a Greek that appears to be translated in a way that preserves the classical biblical style of the Deuteronomic historian. 1. What does Apocrypha mean? The Books of the so called Apocrypha Apocrypha means those that were hidden.Generally, the term is applied to writings that were not part of the canon.There are several reasons why these texts were not included in the canon. The name "Apocrypha" is applied to a collection of books not included in the canon of the Bible although they are incorporated in the canon of the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches. Today, Coptic, Greek and Russian Orthodox churches also accept these books as … borrowed from Medieval Latin, neuter plural (for scripta apocrypha "uncanonical writings") of Late Latin apocryphus "secret, of doubtful authenticity, uncanonical," borrowed from Greek apókryphos "hidden, concealed, obscure," verbal adjective of apokrýptein "to hide (from), keep hidden (from)," from apo- apo- + krýptein "to conceal, hide" — more at crypt Apocrypha is a loanword borrowed from Latin, from Greek Apokrupha, neuter pl. Others fill in gaps in the New Testament Gospels, usually with a heightened sense of the miraculous. The Jews wrote numerous other works that are not included in any Christian canon. 'hidden') denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books thought to have been written some time between 200 BC and 400 AD. Some Christian churches include some or all of the same texts within the body of their version of the Old Testament. What the Protestant churches call apocrypha, the Catholic Church calls the deuterocanonicals (or "second canon"), but it considers three books held as canon by the Eastern Orthodox churches as apocrypha. 1. of apokruphos, secret, hidden, from apokruptein, to hide away : apo-, apo- + kruptein, kruph-, to hide.] The term has several meanings, which are important to distinguish. The Prayer of Azariah and the Three Young Men, placed after Daniel 3:23, is a prayer of trust in God offered up by Azariah (i.e., Abednego Dan 1:7 ) and his companions (Shadrach and Meshach) in the fiery furnace. The Apocrypha as a whole is a motley group of texts, each related in their own way to the Bible. They are not called apocrypha by the Orthodox Church. The Greek Orthodox Church adds 1 Esdras, Psalm 151, the Prayer of Manasseh, and 3 Maccabees, with 4 Maccabees in an appendix. 1 Esdras 2 Esdras Tobit Judith Esther (Greek) Wisdom of Solomon Ecclesiasticus (Sira) Baruch Epistle of Jeremiah Prayer of Azariah Susanna Bel and the Dragon Prayer of Manasseh 1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees. First, they are filled with supernatural deeds: miracles abound, especially the raising of the dead, and even a talking lion gets baptized. Originally, the term was reserved for books with content considered too sacred and grand to make accessible to the general public. Information and translations of Apocrypha in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Several of these writings are tied closely to Old Testament books. Menu ... Middle English apocripha not authentic from Late Latin Apocrypha the Apocrypha from Greek Apokrupha neuter pl. I. The Additions to Daniel have a less unified purpose. of apokruphos secret, hidden from apokruptein to hide away apo-apo-kruptein kruph-to hide. Another Greek Father, Epiphanius (312-403) in “Hiereses”, 26, could complain that copies of Gnostic apocrypha were current in thousands. •Found in the Greek Septuagint (Ezekiel 8) The New Testament Apocrypha is an amorphous collection of writings that are for the most part either about, or pseudonymously attributed to, New Testament figures. A large portion of the Apocrypha, however, was officially recognized by the Roman Catholic Church (noted below with a *) as part of the biblical canon at the Council of Trent in A.D. 1546. Apocrypha "Apocrypha" comes from the Greek word apokrypha [ajpovkrufo"], which means "things that are hidden, secret. Search for more names by meaning . Two of the most popular books in the Apocrypha tell the stories, undoubtedly legendary, of two otherwise unknown Jews. The Name Apocrypha. Tobit, purportedly from the time of the Assyrian exile, combines the themes of quest, romance, and overcoming the demonic in a story of God's healing of his faithful servant Tobit and deliverance of the unfortunate widow Sarah. Second Esdras, purportedly composed by Ezra, was written in response to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in a.d. 70. ; its focus is on God's faithfulness to his people. At an early date they were translated into Greek and in this form came to be used by Christians as early as the end of the first century a.d. It includes significant discussions on the nature of sin and its connection with Adam (cf. Third Maccabees tells not of the Maccabees, but of the plight of Egyptian Jews near the end of the third century b.c. Affirming the immortality of the righteous and the eternal punishment of the wicked, the author seeks to demonstrate that inspired reason, guided by the Law, is supreme ruler over the passions. First Esdras, for example, is primarily a retelling of the material found in 2 Chronicles 35:1-36:23, Ezra, and Nehemiah 7:6-8:12; Psalm 151 purports to be an additional psalm of David. Affirmations, among other things, of the preexistence and immortality of the soul indicate a considerable degree of Greek influence upon the author. Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha are two separate groups of works dating primarily from the period of the Second Temple. The Roman Catholic Apocrypha consists of Tobit, Judith, the Additions to Esther, the Additions to Daniel (the Prayer of Azariah and the Three Young Men, Susanna, and Bel and the Dragon), the Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus (also called Sirach), Baruch (also called 1 Baruch), the Letter of Jeremiah, 1 Maccabees, and 2 Maccabees. Apart from the issue of canonicity, the Old Testament Apocrypha has had a pronounced and pervasive influence on Western culture. They are included in the Orthodox Bible because they were included in the Septuagint which was in use at the time of Jesus, and the authors of the New Testament. Dictionary ! Jews in the time of Jesus, Paul, the Apostles, and the early church called them Scripture. The word apocrypha comes from the Greek word ἀπόκρυφα, meaning "hidden." Apocrypha Search: Books. II. The Russian Orthodox Church adds 1 Esdras, 2 Esdras, Psalm 151, and 3 Maccabees. "The Apocrypha" refers to two collections of ancient Jewish and Christian writings that have certain affinities with the various books of the Old Testament and New Testament but were not canonized by Christians as a whole: the Old Testament Apocrypha, which are still viewed as canonical by some Christians, and the New Testament Apocrypha, which are not. Definition. Apocrypha is a plural word (singular: apocryphan) that originally denoted hidden or secret writings, to be read only by initiates into a given Christian group. APOCRYPHA •They are not, and have never been, in the Jewish canon (written in Greek not Hebrew) •None of the Apocrypha claim inspiration or divine authority. Prov 8:22-31 ) Wisdom, whom he identifies with the Law, and provides practical precepts for everyday living. noun the Apocrypha (functioning as singular or plural) 1. the 14 books included as an appendix to the Old Testament in the Septuagint and the Vulgate but not included in the Hebrew canon. It includes a powerful expression of contrition for sin and trust in the grace of God. J. H. Charlesworth, ed., The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha; J. K. Elliott, ed., The Apocryphal New Testament; E. Hennecke and W. Schneemelcher, eds., New Testament Apocrypha; B. M. Metzger, An Introduction to the Apocrypha; G. W. E. Nickelsburg, Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah; E. Schrer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ; H. F. D. Sparks, ed., The Apocryphal Old Testament; M. E. Stone, ed., Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period. Usage as to Apocrypha. Apart from his obvious support of the revolt and opposition to the hellenization of Judaism that preceded it, the author's primary religious perspective seems to be that God or, rather, heaven helps those who take initiative and trust in him. They were included in the Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures (Septuagint) and in the Christian Bible until the Reformation. There are also apocryphal letters (e.g.,3 Corinthians, Letter to the Laodiceans [cf. The Gospel of Nicodemus (also called the Acts of Pilate), provides a detailed account of Jesus' trial and descent into hell. It comes from Greek and is formed from the combination of apo (away) and krytein (hide or conceal). They were eventually included in Christian copies of the Greek Old Testament and, later, the Latin Vulgate. Although the literature is too vast and varied to summarize here, many Pseudepigrapha contain visionary journeys through heaven (or a series of heavens) and hell, an increased interest in angels and demons, speculations on the origins of sin and the nature of the final judgment, various expectations of a Messiah, predictions of the end of time, and ethical exhortations. In the formation of the Christian canon of Scripture, “apocrypha” came to mean works that were not divinely inspired and authoritative. Please enter your email address associated with your Salem All-Pass account, then click Continue. The Infancy Gospel of Thomas narrates Jesus' childhood from age five to age twelve, with the child Jesus performing numerous miracles, sometimes to the point of absurdity (e.g., bringing clay sparrows to life). The Roman Catholic canon places the Prayer of Manasseh, 1 Esdras, and 2 Esdras in an appendix without implying canonicity. Jewish teacher named Jesus ben Sira. [Middle English apocripha, not authentic, from Late Latin Apocrypha, the Apocrypha, from Greek Apokrupha, neuter pl. The Books called the Apocrypha consist of 14 books originally attached to the Greek Old Testament that were not in the Hebrew-written Bible. All rights reserved. These books that were removed are called the Apocrypha. The Old Testament Apocrypha . 1 The Septuagint was produced in Alexandria, Egypt, around 200 BC, but the individual books that constitute the Apocrypha were written roughly between 400 BC and AD 1. Fourth Maccabees, an imaginative elaboration on the martyrdoms in 2 Maccabees, is a distinctive melding of Greek and Jewish ideas. Third, they glorify martyrdom, especially among the apostles: Andrew is crucified, Paul is beheaded, Peter is crucified upside down, and Thomas is executed with spears; only John is spared a martyr's death. Unlike the Old Testament Apocrypha, the New Testament Apocrypha have never been viewed as canonical by any of the major branches of Christianity, nor is there any reason to believe that the traditions they record have any historical validity. ‘Stories transmitted by contemporary media can also be understood in terms of canon and apocrypha.’ Origin Late Middle English from ecclesiastical Latin apocrypha (scripta) ‘hidden (writings)’, from Greek apokruphos, from apokruptein ‘hide away’. late 14c., Apocrifa, in reference to the apocryphal books of the Bible, from Late Latin apocrypha (scripta), from neuter plural of apocryphus "secret, not approved for public reading," from Greek apokryphos "hidden; obscure, hard to understand," thus " (books) of unknown authorship" (especially those included in the Septuagint and Vulgate but not originally written in Hebrew and not counted as … The word apocrypha, like many other words, has undergone a major change in meaning throughout the centuries. 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